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非英语专业学生英语写作句型常见错误分析

  【摘 要】 在聽说读写四项语言基本技能中,写作教学最为“棘手”。非英语专业同学的英语作文在用词、构句和成篇方面都存在着很多问题。中国学生在英语写作表现欠佳的原因繁杂多样。本文以笔者所在学院的非英语专业学生为研究对象,对他们英语写作中的句型错误进行归纳分析,并提供大学英语写作的教学建议,旨在为大学英语写作教学提供一些启示。
  【关键词】 大学英语写作  错误  句型
  英语写作能力的培养是大学英语教学中的重点也是难点。在语言交际过程中,语言的输出能力是终极目标,所以“写“的培养尤为关键。分析学生英语写作中句型错误类型,分析产生错误原因并找到纠正之法,是提高学生写作能力的关键所在。我院非英语专业学生四级作文和学生日常写作中,句法存在以下几种错误:粘连句、句子残缺及垂悬修饰语。
  一、粘连句(Run-on Sentences)
  粘连句,既是两个或是更多个句子混合在一起,但没有正确使用标点符号或是句子连接词。粘连句表意不清,容易造成误解及阅读障碍,是中国学生写作文最常犯的句子错误。例如:I got stuck in traffic today, it took me two hours to get home. 这是典型的标点错误,两个简单句之间只用逗号连接, 形成了粘连句式。根据句子之间的不同关系,改正粘连句有三种方法:用句号分隔;用逗号和并列连词分隔;或用分号连接两个独立句子。
  例子1. The exam was postponed, the class was cancelled. 可以修改为The exam was postponed, and the class was cancelled. 或是 As the exam was postponed, the class was cancelled.
  例子 2. She wondered what to do. She couldn?蒺t go back he couldn?蒺t borrow money he couldn?蒺t even telephone her mother. 可以增加分号。She wondered what to do. She couldn?蒺t go back;he couldn?蒺t borrow money;he couldn?蒺t even telephone her mother.
  例子 3. The tomato is very popular today, it was once thought to be poisonous. 可以更改为The tomato is very popular today, but it was once thought to be poisonous.
  有的同学在两个句子中间使用逗号,,而且到处点逗号,结果错误百出。例如:We were overjoyed, not unnaturally, at the news, that our team had won. 应该将多余的逗号删除。改为We were overjoyed, not unnaturally, at the news that our team had won.
  二、残缺句(Sentence Fragments)
  残缺句(Sentence Fragments)是句子缺少主语或动词,或是句子无法表达一个完整的意思。残缺句分为四种类型:从属词不完整;现在分词或不定式不完整;附加细节不完整;主语缺位的不完整句。例子如下:
  例句1:After I finished my assignment. I treated myself to dinner. (从属词不完整)
  “after”引导的句子不可以独立存在,在逻辑上也要依附于后面的独立的句子。所以应该为“After I finished my assignment, I treated myself to dinner.”
  当现在分词和不定时位于句首,且缺少主语或是部分动词的时候就构成了残缺句。例如:
  例句2:Sherry and Lucy have been best friends since first grade. Graduating from college this July.
  更改方式为增加逗号连接两个句子。上面的这个句子的正确形式应为:
  Sherry and Lucy have been best friends since first grade,graduating from college this July.
  附加细节不完整的残缺句缺少主语和动词,通常句子以下列单词开始:also, expert, especially, including, such as, for example.
  例句3: I am interested only in the properties of fruit. Such as lemons, oranges, and grapefruit. 更改方式有两种:把残缺句扩展到主句中,或是通过添加或减少某些成分;把残缺句改成一个独立、完整的句子。所以此例句可以改为:
  I am interested only in the properties of fruit,such as lemons, oranges, and grapefruit.
  I am interested only in the properties of fruit. Examples are lemons, oranges, and grapefruit.

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